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Afghanistan is a country situated within South Asia and Central Asia with Kabul its capital and the largest city. It counts a total population of around 31 million people and it the 41st largest country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan, Iran, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and China in the far northeast. It is also known as the “Graveyard of Empires” because many of the worlds most powerful empires powerful empires for the last 2000 years have tried and failed to capture Afghanistan. There are numerous monuments to visit such as Buddha Niches in Bamiyan valley, Herat's Old City which is the most complete traditional medieval city in Afghanistan and Herat's Friday Mosque, an Islamic building and one of the nicest in Central Asia. In Afghanistan the climate is mainly subarctic with dry and cold winters, apart from the lowland areas which have an arid and semiarid climate. Temperatures in the central highlands are usually below zero for most of the winter, and snow is common at higher elevations. During the summer, temperatures in lower elevations can reach up 50°C or more. In higher areas such as Kabul, summer average temperatures are around 30°C and winter around 0°C.